Shutter speeds and Aperture

Shutter speeds control the duration of time the lens is opened.
1/1000; 1/500; 1/250; 1/125; 1/60; 1/30; 1/15; 1/8; 1/4; 1/2; 1 second; etc; Bulb. Moving the shutter speed one increment or ONE STOP, doubles the amount of light reaching the film, or cuts the amount of light in half reaching the film.  1/125 to 1/60 would increase the amount of light by 100%; Moving in the opposite direction would cut the amount of light in half.
Try to always keep the shutter speed higher than the focal length of the lens.
(Exception to this would be if you are using a tripod, monopod, have the camera on a fixed surface or your using a stabilizing lens)
Aperture (F/stops), control the intensity of the light while the lens is opened.
f/1.4; f/2.0; f2.8; f/4.0; f/5.6; f/8; f/11; f/16; f/22.  Moving the aperture or f/number one increment will double the intensity of light reaching the film or cut the intensity in half. f/8 to f/5.6 would increase the intensity by 100% while moving the f/number from f/5.6 to f/8 would cut the intensity in half.
Apertures control depth of field with higher numbers like f/16 giving you more depth of field and lower number like f/2 providing less depth of field.
Focal length of lens also controls depth of field, for example; a 28mm lens inherently gives you more depth of filed while a 135mm gives you less.
Distance of camera to subject matter is another variable controlling depth of field meaning the closer one is with their lens to the subject matter, the less depth of field one will have, the farther one is from their subject matter, the greater the depth of field.

Vishaal Bhat

Founder manipalblog| Student| Father| Blogger| Pharmacology Teacher| Chess & Photography Enthusiast| Voracious Reader| Hindu Nationalist.